From an essay by José Carlos Mariátegui - cited by Daisy Zamora in the intro to her anthology, La mujer nicaragüense en la poesía:
"Los versos de las poetisas generalmente no son versos de mujer. No se siente en ellos sentimiento de hembra. Las poetisas no hablan como mujeres. Son, en su poesía, seres neutros. Son artistas sin sexo. La poesía de la mujer está dominada por un pudor estúpido. Y carece por esta razón de humanidad y de fuerza. Mientras el poeta muestra su "yo", la poetisa esconde y mistifica el suyo. Envuelve su alma, su vida, su verdad, en las grotescas túnicas de lo convencional" (Zamora 22).
"The verses of poetesses generally aren't women's verses. One doesn't sense in them any female feeling. The women poets don't talk like women. They are, in their poetry, neuter beings. They're artists without sex. The poetry of women is dominated by an idiotic modesty. And that's why they lack in humanity and power. While the male poet displays his "I", the poetess hides and mystifies herself. She wraps up her soul, her life, her truth, in the grotesque tunics of the conventional." [translation by Liz Henry]
I don't know the year that Mariátegui wrote this essay, but most likely sometime in the 1920s. It's fascinating to contrast his criticism of women with that of other (male) critics who run off at the mouth about the oversexed women poets who go too far with their passion and who can't seem to write about anything important, anything other than love. I had just been writing about him in conjunction with Magda Portal, María Wiesse, Angela Ramos, Alicia del Prado, and other women who were publishing in Amauta, a Peruvian magazine. He was the only man mentioned in conjunction with these very political, activist women, and I wondered if he had some interesting take on feminism. Well, he sure sounds jerky in that one excerpt, kind of like he wants a free show from these un-neuter women who boldly strip themselves of their tunics...
Last week I translated Magda Portal's poem "Liberación". And check out these lines:
Un día seré libre... Seré libre presiento,
con una gran sonrisa a flor de corazón,
con una gran sonrisa como no tengo hoy.
Y ya no habrá la sombra de mi remordimiento,
el cobarde silencio que merma mi Emoción.
Un día habré logrado la verdad de mi Yo!
One day I'll be free... I'll be free, I know it,
with a huge smile that flowers from the heart,
with a huge smile that I don't have today.
And then I won't have the ghost of my shame,
the coward silence that tamps down Emotion.
Someday I'll have achieved the truth of my Self!
[forgive the translation... a crude first draft.]
Wow! That just can't be a coincidence. It sounds like she wrote it in response to Mariátegui. A little bit of poking around on the web and I found this fascinating essay by him all about Portal's poetry, comparing her to Agustini, Ibarbourou, and others: 7 Ensayos de Interpretación de la Realidad Peruana, from 1928. Mari&ategui has a huge crush!
I find it annoying how he says her work isn't "descended" from any other women -- as if feminist geneologies would demean the work or the poet, and as if she sprung up out of nowhere and as if no other woman anywhere were writing like that. Praise becomes isolation; isolation becomes tokenization. I understand that his motivations were partly nationalist, but from my perspective, I see every introduction to women's work from this era saying "How come this woman poet has no equal, no precursor? Where did she come from? " as having a subtext of assigning freakishness to women writers.
But then, the more I look, the more I find that these women writers often were surrounded by other writing women. They're not left out because they're trivial; they're left out because non-triviality is defined to be male.
Tags: feminism, latin american poetry, literary translation